In the pharmaceutical, chemical, food and beverage, flavor, fragrance and essential oils, petrochemical, metalworking and automotive industries, refractometers play an important role in quality assurance. They determine the refractive index of liquid or solid substances, from which their identity and quality as well as the concentration in binary or quasi-binary mixtures can be derived.
The progress of reactions and substance conversions are also readable via the refractive index. Refractometers are used in a variety of applications, from determining the purity and concentration of drug ingredients, to measuring sugar levels in food and beverages, to petroleum analysis.
Refractometers - fields of application and standards
|Typical applications||Analysed substances||Special requirements||Standards||Recommended devices|
|Characterisation tests in research and development. Identity test, purity control and concentration determination of raw materials, semi-finished products and end products||Pharmaceuticals, infusion solutions, dialysis preparations, blood sera etc.||Precision, compliance with standards||Pharmacopoeia (USP, BP, JP, Ph. Eur.), GLP, FDA, NIST||DR6100-T, |
|Characterisation tests in research
Identity test, purity control and concentration determination of raw materials, semi-finished products and end products.
Tracking of chemical processes during production
|Organic solvents, aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, salt solutions, acids, bases, stains, industrial oils, paints and varnishes, resins, glue components, tensides, extinguishing agents, polymer products, silicones, raw plastic materials etc.||Exact temperature control within a wide temperature range, wide measurement range, variety of scales, variability of measurement methods, option of interval measurements||AOAC,
|PETROCHEMICAL, AUTOMOTIVE AND AVIATION INDUSTRY, METAL PROCESSING AND BUILDING TECHNOLOGY|
|Identity test and concentration
Outgoing goods inspection
|Lubricating oils, fuels, gear oils, wax, lubricants, cooling lubricants, de-icing agents and anti-freeze agents, battery acid, AdBlue, tensides, cleaners, windshield wiper concentrate etc.||Easy handling, availability of the Brix scale, temperature compensation option||AOAC,
|Quality and purity control of raw
materials and end products.
Determination of the sugar concentration.
|Sugar, jams, honey, syrup, seasoning sauces, mustard and mayonnaise, convenience products, dairy products, baby food, egg products, oils, starch hydrolysis products etc.||Fast measurement and easy handling, easy cleaning, availability of the Brix scale, routine analysis with high sample throughput||AOAC,
|Determination of the sugar concentration
in semi-finished products and end products.
Determination of the solids content in solutions.
Determination of the purity in combination with a polarimeter.
|Sugar cane, beet pulp, molasses, refined sugar, syrup, invert sugar etc.||Availability of the international sugar scale, availability of the Brix scale, maintenance-free||ICUMSA,
|MANUFACTURERS OF AROMAS, FRAGRANCES AND ESSENTIAL OILS|
|Quality control of raw materials and auxiliary materials
M onitoring of the production of semi-finished products and end products
|Essential oils (such as orange, lemon, lavender and peppermint oil), glyceric acid, Aromas and perfumes for the food, cosmetic and tobacco industry etc.||Low sample volumes with a high aggressiveness, high accuracy||Pharmacopoeia (USP, BP, JP, Ph. Eur.),
|Routine analysis with high sample throughput.
Quality and purity control of raw materials and end products.
Determination of the sugar concentration in juices and alcohol-free beverages
Determination of the alcohol or extract content in beer, spices, wine or spirits.
Quality control of dairy products
Sewage water check.
|Fruit and vegetable juices, dietary beverages, beer, spices, wine, spirits, distillates, liquors, sugar concentrates, dairy products, aromas and colouring etc.||Fast measurement and easy handling, easy cleaning, availability of the Brix scale||AOAC,
|HOSPITALS AND PHARMACIES|
|Incoming and outgoing goods inspection.
Checking medicines for pharmacopeias.
Analysis of body secretions.
|Medicines, infusion solutions, blood sera, dialysis preparations, urine etc.||Easy handling, availability of the Brix scale, temperature compensation option||Pharmacopoeia
JP, Ph. Eur.),
|TESTING LABORATORIES, INSTITUTES, TEACHING FACILITIES|
|Testing of foodstuff and pharmaceutical products.
Testing of the ompliance with national and international standards.
|Food and beverage samples, samples from research and development, acids, bases, solvents||Food and beverage samples, samples from research and development, acids, bases, solvents||Pharmacopoeia
(USP, BP, JP, Ph.
Handheld refractometers - fields of application
|Handheld refractometer||Scale||Measurement range||Measurement accuracy||Application|
|HRB10-T||Brix||0–10 %Brix||±0.1 %Brix||Determination of sugar content in fruit, grapes, juices, vegetables, foods and cooling liquids|
|HRB18-T||Brix||0–18 %Brix||±0.1 %Brix||Determination of sugar content in fruit, grapes, juices, vegetables, foods and cooling liquids|
|HRB32-T||Brix||0–32 %Brix||±0.2 %Brix||Determination of sugar content in fruit, grapes, juices, vegetables, foods and cooling liquids|
|HRB62-T||Brix||28–62 %Brix||±0.2 %Brix||Analysis of chemical and technical fluids, e.g. oils, greases, radiator fluids and lubricants|
|HRB82-T||Brix||45–82 % Brix||±0.2 %Brix||Analysis of highly concentrated sugar solutions as well as chemical and technical liquids, e.g. oils, fats, radiator fluids and lubricants|
Water content in honey
|58–92 %Brix |
12–27 % Water content in honey
|±0.5 %Brix |
±0.5 % Water content in honey
|Examination of highly concentrated sugar solutions as well as analysis of fats, lubricants and food. |
Examination of honey to the water content (according to guidelines of the German Beekeepers' Association).
Determination of the relative density with respect to the Baumé scale.
|HRB90||Brix (with thermometer 6–36 °C)||0–90 %Brix||±0.2 %Brix||Universal handheld refractometer for determining the sugar content of fruit, grapes, juices, vegetables, foods, oils, fats, coolants, lubricants and other sugary substances|
|HRH30-T||Water content in honey||12-30 % Water content in honey||±0.1 % Water content in honey||Examination of honey to the water content (according to guidelines of the German Beekeepers' Association).|
|HRND||Refractive index||1.3330–1.5170||±0.0005||Universal handheld refractometer for refractive indices. |
Measuring range covers the most frequent substances of the pharmacy requirement.
|0–10 % |
|Salt content determination (NaCl) in liquids, such as in seawater, in drinks and preservatives of food. |
Determination of the specific density of liquids at 20 ° C with respect to water.
|HRS28-T||Salinity (NaCI)||0–28 %||±0.2 %||Salt content determination (NaCl) in liquids, such as in seawater, in drinks and preservatives of food.|
|HRM18-T||Refractive index |
Specific gravity of urine (UG)
|Examination of urine samples for refractive index, protein content and specific gravity.|
Potential alcohol content
|0–32 %Brix |
4.4–19 % Alcohol
|±0.2 %Brix |
±0.1 % Alcolhol
|Examination of grape must and alcoholic beverages.|
|HRKFZ-T||Ethylene and propylene glycol (antifreeze) |
|-50–0 °C |
|±5 °C |
|Determination of acid concentration in batteries and measurement of glycol content in coolants.|